Tag Archives: Policy Based Forwarding

Discovering Policy-Based Routes with Layer 4 Traceroutes (LFT)

I already published a few examples how you can use layer four traceroutes in order to pass firewall policies that block ping but allow some well-known ports such as 80 or 443. Long story short: Using TCP SYN packets on an opened firewall port with the TTL trick will probably succeed compared to a classical traceroute based on ICMP echo-requests.

Another nice use case for layer 4 traceroutes is the recognition of policy based routes within your own network (or even beyond). That is: Depending on the TCP/UDP port used for the traceroute you can reveal which paths your packets take over the network. This is quite useful compared to classical traceroutes that only reveal the straightforward routing tables but not the policy based ones.

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Palo Alto PBF Problem

I migrated an old Juniper SSG ScreenOS firewall to a Palo Alto Networks firewall. While almost everything worked great with the Palo (of course with much more functionalities) I came across one case in which a connection did NOT work due to a bug on the Palo side. I investigated this bug with the support team from Palo Alto Networks and it turned out that it “works as designed”. Hm, I was not happy with this since I still don’t understand the design principle behind it.

However, it was a specific and not business critical case: One Palo Alto firewall with two ISP connections using a destination network address translation (DNAT, an old IPv4 problem) and policy based forwarding (PBF) with the same destination ports. Following are some more details:

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Policy Based Routing on a Cisco ASA

Cisco ASA 9.4 (and later) is now supporting Policy Based Routing. Yeah. Great news, since many customers are requesting something like “HTTP traffic to the left – VoIP traffic to the right”. Coming with a new Cisco ASA 5506-X I was happy to try the policy based routing feature.

The configuration steps through the ASDM GUI are not easy and full of errors so I am trying to give some hints within this blog post.

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Policy Based Forwarding on a Palo Alto with different Virtual Routers

This guide is a little bit different to my other Policy Based Forwarding blog post because it uses different virtual routers for both ISP connections. This is quite common to have a distinct default route for both providers. So, in order to route certain traffic, e.g., http/https, to another ISP connection, policy based forwarding is used.

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Policy-Based Routing on ScreenOS with different Virtual Routers

I already puslished a blog post concerning policy-based routing on a Juniper firewall within the same virtual router (VR). For some reasons, I was not able to configure PBR correctly when using multiple VRs. Now it works. ;) So, here are the required steps:

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Policy Routing on a FortiGate Firewall

This is a small example on how to configure policy routes (also known as policy-based forwarding or policy-based routing) on a Fortinet firewall, which is really simple at all. Only one single configuration page and you’re done. ;)

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Policy-Based Routing (PBR) on a Juniper ScreenOS Firewall

Here comes an example on how to configure policy-based routing (PBR) on a Juniper ScreenOS firewall. The requirement at the customers site was to forward all http and https connections through a cheap but fast DSL Internet connection while the business relevant applications (mail, VoIP, ftp, …) should rely on the reliable ISP connection with static IPv4 addresses. I am showing the five relevant menus to configure PBR on the ScreenOS GUI.

[UPDATE] I later on wrote an article with policy-based routing with two different virtual routers. See it here.[/UPDATE]

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Policy Based Forwarding (PBF) on a Palo Alto Firewall

This is a small example on how to configure policy based forwarding (PBF) on a Palo Alto Networks firewall. The use case was to route all user generated http and https traffic through a cheap ADSL connection while all other business traffic is routed as normal through the better SDSL connection. Since I ran into two problems with this simple scenario, I am showing the solutions here.

[UPDATE] I also wrote an article about policy based forwarding with two different virtual routers on the Palo Alto firewall. See it here.[/UPDATE]

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