Just a few days ago I gave a talk at Troopers 18 in Heidelberg, Germany, about the problems of dynamic (non-persistent) IPv6 prefixes, as well as IPv6 VPNs in general. Following are my slides and the video of the talk:
I am lucky to have a full dual-stack ISP connection at home. However, the ISP only offers a dynamic IPv6 prefix with all of its disadvantages (while no single advantage). In this post, I am summarizing the limitations of a dynamic prefix and some of the ideas on how to overcome them. I am always comparing the “IPv6 dynamic prefix” state with the legacy “dynamic IPv4 address” situation. I suppose that some of these problems will hit many small office / home office locations during the next years.
Of course, IPv6 ISP connections with dynamic prefixes should only be purchased at private home sites. It is no problem to have new IPv6 addresses there because all connections are outbound. However, many small remote offices (SOHO) might rely on such cheap ISP connections, too. If they provide some servers in a DMZ or other components such as network cameras, building components with IPv6 connections, etc., they will run into these kind of problems. (The remote office could even tunnel every outbound IPv6 traffic through a VPN to the headquarter. But if it wants to use a local breakout, this won’t be an alternative.)
How to route traffic inside an IPv6 site-to-site VPN tunnel if one side offers only dynamic IPv6 prefixes? With IPv4, the private network segments were statically routed through the tunnel. But with a dynamic prefix, a static route is not possible. That is, a dynamic routing protocol must be used. Here is an example of how I used OSPFv3 for IPv6 between my VPN endpoints.
In detail, I have a home office with a dual stack ISP connection. However, this connection has a dynamic IPv6 prefix: After every reboot or lost connection of the firewall, I get a new IPv6 prefix. This is really bad for building a site-to-site VPN to the headquarter. Since I don’t want to use any kind of NAT/NPTv6 with unique local addresses, I am talking OSPFv3 over the VPN tunnel in order to route the dynamic prefix range (global unicast) via the tunnel.
Similar to my test lab for OSPFv2, I am testing OSPFv3 for IPv6 with the following devices: Cisco ASA, Cisco Router, Fortinet FortiGate, Juniper SSG, Palo Alto, and Quagga Router. I am showing my lab network diagram and the configuration commands/screenshots for all devices. Furthermore, I am listing some basic troubleshooting commands. In the last section, I provide a Tcpdump/Wireshark capture of an initial OSPFv3 run.
I am not going into deep details of OSPFv3 at all. But this lab should give basic hints/examples for configuring OSPFv3 for all of the listed devices.
While reading the OSPF chapter in the Cisco CCNP ROUTE learning guide, I was interested in how to visualize an OSPF area. Since every router in the same area has a complete view of all routers and networks, it should be easy to draw a map. So, I searched through the web for this kind of OSPF plotter and found two different approaches. While none of them worked out of the box, I was able to run one of them with an additional software router (Quagga) inside my OSPF area which finally drew a map. Yeah. Here we go:
Seit über einem Jahr zeichne ich die Anzahl der Hops von einer Reihe DSL-Anschlüssen auf (siehe hier). Mein Monitoring-Server läuft dabei hinter einem statischen Anschluss der Telekom, während die privaten Internetanschlüsse von diversen Anbietern (1&1, Kabel Deutschland, Telekom) kommen. Nun habe ich leider nicht im Detail die Ahnung davon, wie diese Anbieter ihren Traffic routen, zumindest scheint aber 1&1 irgendetwas Komisches bei sich verbaut zu haben, da sehr oft nach der nächtlichen Zwangstrennung ein deutlicher Unterschied in der Anzahl der Hops zu sehen ist.