SSHFP: FQDN vs. Domain Search/DNS-Suffix

This is actually a bad user experience problem: To generally omit the manual verification of SSH key fingerprints I am using SSHFP. With fully qualified domain names (FQDN) as the hostname for SSH connections such as ssh nb10.weberlab.de this works perfectly. However, admins are lazy and only use the hostname without the domain suffix to connect to their servers since the domain search does the rest: ssh nb10. Not so for SSHFP which fails since the default OpenSSH client does not use canonicalization for its DNS queries. Hence you must explicitly enable canonicalization for OpenSSH.

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SSHFP behind CNAME

I am intensely using the SSH Public Key Fingerprint (SSHFP, RFC 4255) in all of my environments. Since my zones are secured via DNSSEC I got rid of any “authenticity of host ‘xyz’ can’t be established” problems. As long as I am using my central jump host with OpenSSH and the “VerifyHostKeyDNS yes” option I can securely login into any of my servers without any warnings. Great!

However, I encountered a couple of daily problems when using SSHFP. One of them was the question whether SSHFP works behind CNAMEs, that is, when connecting to an  alias. Short answer: yes. Some more details here:

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Benchmarking DNS: namebench & dnseval

If you’re running your own DNS resolver you’re probably interested in some benchmark tests against it, such as: how fast does my own server (read: Raspberry Pi) answer to common DNS queries compared to 8.8.8.8.

In this blogpost I am showing how to use two tools for testing/benchmarking DNS resolvers: namebench & dnseval. I am listing the defaults, giving some hints about them and showing examples in which I tested some private and public DNS resolvers: a Fritzbox router, a Raspberry Pi with Unbound, Quad9, OpenDNS, and Google Public DNS.

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All-in-One DNS Tool: Domain Analyzer

Just a quick glance at the domain_analyzer script from Sebastián García and Verónica Valeros. “Domain analyzer is a security analysis tool which automatically discovers and reports information about the given domain. Its main purpose is to analyze domains in an unattended way.” Nice one. If you’re running your own DNS servers you should check e.g. whether your firewall rules are correct (scanned with Nmap) or whether you’re not allowing zone transfer, etc.

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Instrumentenbasteleien

Instrumente sind vorsichtig zu behandeln und keine Bastelobjekte! Vollkommen richtig. So habe ich meine Klampfen und Co. auch stets gut gepflegt und keine Modifikationen daran getätigt. (Eine kleine Ausnahme war die vollkommen laienhafte Reparatur der Brücke meiner 12-saitigen Akustikgitarre welche sonst ein Totalschaden gewesen wäre.)

Ein bisschen anders gehandhabt habe ich dies allerdings in den letzten Jahren, in denen ich sowohl selbst als auch durch Profis in Form von Instrumentenbauern oder Comic-Zeichnern meine Instrumente habe modifizieren lassen. Ich bin sozusagen etwas mutiger geworden ohne jedoch über die Stränge zu schlagen. Zumindest meiner Meinung nach. Da ich ebenfalls über ein gewisses Sendungsbewusstsein verfüge hatte ich alle Änderungen ohnehin bei Instagram (mittlerweile gelöscht #DeleteFacebook) oder Twitter gepostet. Hier aber noch ein paar mehr Worte dazu:

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DNS Test Names & Resource Records

I am testing a lot with my own DNS servers as well as with third-party DNS implementations such as DNS proxies on firewalls, DNSSEC validation on resolvers, etc. While there are a number of free DNS online tools around the Internet I was lacking some DNS test names with certain properties or resource records. Hence I configured a couple of them on my own authoritative DNS servers and its zone weberdns.de.

For example we encountered a bug on the Palo Alto DNS proxy that has not stored the TTL value correctly – hence some test names with different TTL values. Or we had some problems when a single DNS name has more than 15 IPv4/IPv6 addresses – hence some test names with lots of addresses. And many more: Continue reading DNS Test Names & Resource Records

PGP Key Distribution via DNSSEC: OPENPGPKEY

What is the biggest problem of PGP? The key distribution. This is well-known and not new at all. What is new is the OPENPGPKEY DNS resource record that delivers PGP public keys for mail addresses. If signed and verified with DNSSEC a mail sender can get the correct public key for his recipient. This solves both key distribution problems: 1) the delivery of the public key and 2) the authenticity of the key itself, i.e., that you’re using the correct key to encrypt a mail.

The “DNS-Based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) Bindings for OpenPGP” is specified in the experimental RFC 7929. Let’s have a look on how you can add your public key into the zone file of your DNS server.

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CAA: DNS Certification Authority Authorization

I really like the kind of security features that are easy to use. The CAA “DNS Certification Authority Authorization” is one of those. As a domain administrator you must only generate the appropriate CAA records and you’re done. (Unlike other security features such as HPKP that requires deep and careful planning or DANE which is not used widely.) Since the check of CAA records is mandatory for CAs since 8. September 2017, the usage of those records is quite useful because it adds another layer of security.

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Apple AirPlay Capture

I was interested in how Apple AirPlay works in my network. I am using an iPad to stream music to a Yamaha R-N500 network receiver. There is a great Unofficial AirPlay Protocol Specification which already shows many details about the used protocols. But since I am a networking guy I captured the whole process in order to analyze it with Wireshark.

Following is a downloadable pcap if you want to have a look at it by yourself as well as some Wireshark and NetworkMiner screenshots for a first glance.

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Nmap Packet Capture

I am using Nmap every time I installed a new server/appliance/whatever in order to check some unknown open ports from the outside. In most situations I am only doing a very basic run of Nmap without additional options or NSE scripts.

Likewise I am interested in how the Nmap connections appear on the wire. Hence I captured a complete Nmap run (TCP and UDP) and had a look at it with Wireshark. If you’re interested too, feel free to download the following pcap and have a look at it by yourself. At least I took some Wireshark screenshots to give a first glance about the scan.

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SSH Key Fingerprints

As a network administrator I know that there are SSH fingerprints. And of course I know that I must verify the fingerprints for every new connection. ;) But I did not know that there are so many different kinds of fingerprints such as md5- or sha-hashed, represented in base64 or hex, and of course for each public key pair such as RSA, DSA, ECDSA, and Ed25519. Uh, a bit too complicated at a first glance. Hence I draw a picture.

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IKE Solutions

Almost 4 weeks ago I published a pcap file with some challenges – this time four falsified configured IPsec VPN connections. If you have not solved it by now you should first download the pcap file and should give it a try.

Remember the scenario: You need to prove that the wrong VPN settings are not on your side (the four routers) but on the headquarters firewall side. Not an easy job. Now here are the solutions:

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IKEv1 & IKEv2 Capture

It is probably one of the most used protocols in my daily business but I have never captured it in detail: IKE and IPsec/ESP. And since IKEv2 is coming I gave it a try and tcpdumped two VPN session initiations with IKEv1 main mode as well as with IKEv2 to see some basic differences.

Of course I know that all VPN protocols are encrypted – hence you won’t see that much data. But at least you can see the basic message flow such as “only 4 messages with IKEv2” while some more for legacy IKEv1. I won’t go into the protocol details at all. I am merely publishing two pcap files so that anyone can have a look at a VPN session initiation. A few Wireshark screenshots complete the blogpost.

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IKE Challenges

A few month ago I published many Layer 2/3 challenges on my blog. Beside the happy feedback I got some remarks that the challenges were to easy at all because you only needed the display filter at Wireshark while no deep protocol knowledge.

Ok, “challenge excepted” ;) here I have some more protocol related challenges for you: With this post I am publishing a pcap which has four site-to-site IPsec VPN connections inside. On the first half of the pcap all four of them are wrongly configured, hence, not working. –> What are the reasons for that? <–

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IKEv2 IPsec VPN Tunnel Palo Alto <-> FortiGate

And one more IPsec VPN post, again between the Palo Alto Networks firewall and a Fortinet FortiGate, again over IPv6 but this time with IKEv2. It was no problem at all to change from IKEv1 to IKEv2 for this already configured VPN connection between the two different firewall vendors. Hence I am only showing the differences within the configuration and some listings from common CLI outputs for both firewalls.

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