Category Archives: Vendor/Device/OS

Nmap Packet Capture

I am using Nmap every time I installed a new server/appliance/whatever in order to check some unknown open ports from the outside. In most situations I am only doing a very basic run of Nmap without additional options or NSE scripts.

Likewise I am interested in how the Nmap connections appear on the wire. Hence I captured a complete Nmap run (TCP and UDP) and had a look at it with Wireshark. If you’re interested too, feel free to download the following pcap and have a look at it by yourself. At least I took some Wireshark screenshots to give a first glance about the scan.

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SSH Key Fingerprints

As a network administrator I know that there are SSH fingerprints. And of course I know that I must verify the fingerprints for every new connection. ;) But I did not know that there are so many different kinds of fingerprints such as md5- or sha-hashed, represented in base64 or hex, and of course for each public key pair such as RSA, DSA, ECDSA, and Ed25519. Uh, a bit too complicated at a first glance. Hence I draw a picture.

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IKEv2 IPsec VPN Tunnel Palo Alto <-> FortiGate

And one more IPsec VPN post, again between the Palo Alto Networks firewall and a Fortinet FortiGate, again over IPv6 but this time with IKEv2. It was no problem at all to change from IKEv1 to IKEv2 for this already configured VPN connection between the two different firewall vendors. Hence I am only showing the differences within the configuration and some listings from common CLI outputs for both firewalls.

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IPv6 IPsec VPN Tunnel Palo Alto <-> FortiGate

Towards the global IPv6-only strategy ;) VPN tunnels will be used over IPv6, too. I configured a static IPsec site-to-site VPN between a Palo Alto Networks and a Fortinet FortiGate firewall via IPv6 only. I am using it for tunneling both Internet Protocols: IPv6 and legacy IP.

While it was quite easy to bring the tunnel “up”, I had some problems tunneling both Internet Protocols over the single phase 2 session. The reason was some kind of differences within the IPsec tunnel handling between those two firewall vendors. Here are the details along with more than 20 screenshots and some CLI listings.

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Palo Alto NDP Monitoring

With PAN-OS version 8.0 Palo Alto Networks introduced another IPv6 feature, namely “NDP Monitoring for Fast Device Location“. It basically adds a few information to the existing neighbor cache such as the User-ID (if present) and a “last reported” timestamp. That is: the admin has a new reporting window within the Palo Alto GUI that shows the reported IPv6 addresses along with its MAC addresses. This is really helpful for two reasons: 1) a single IPv6 node can have multiple IPv6 addresses which makes it much more difficult to track them back to the MAC address and 2) if SLAAC is used you now have a central point where you can look up the MAC-IPv6 bindings (comparable to the DHCP server lease for legacy IPv4).

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PAN NGFW IPv6 NDP RA RDNSS & DNSSL

Haha, do you like acronyms as much as I do? This article is about the feature from Palo Alto Networks’ Next-Generation Firewall for Internet Protocol version 6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol Router Advertisements with Recursive Domain Name System Server and Domain Name System Search List options. ;) I am showing how to use it and how Windows and Linux react on it.

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Juniper ScreenOS IPv4 vs. IPv6 Throughput Tests

And finally the throughput comparison of IPv6 and legacy IP on a Juniper ScreenOS firewall. Nobody needs this anymore since they are all gone. ;) But since I did the same speedtests for Palo Alto and FortiGates I was interested in the results here as well.

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Juniper ScreenOS VPN Speedtests

Just for fun some more VPN throughput tests, this time for the late Juniper ScreenOS firewalls. I did the same Iperf TCP tests as in my labs for Fortinet and Palo Alto, while I was using six different phase1/2 proposals = crypto algorithms. The results were as expected with one exception.

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Juniper ScreenOS Initial Cleanup Config

I still like the Juniper ScreenOS firewalls such as the SSG 5 or the SSG 140. However, they are End of Everything (EoE) and not used at the customers anymore. But they still do their job in basic networking (static/dynamic routing such as OSPF & BGP, IPv6, NAT), basic firewalling (access policies), and IPsec VPN. Hence I am using a couple of SSGs in my lab when playing with routing protocols and so on.

After a factory reset of those firewalls there are some default settings such as zones at a few interfaces and default IP addresses. Therefore I put the following commands together in order to cleanup the default config to have only IP addresses and default routes which is a good starting point for lab configurations. Let’s go:

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ADS-B am Raspberry Pi: dump1090-mutability

Bereits seit einigen Jahren setze ich einen DVB-T Stick zum Empfang von ADS-B Daten an einem Raspberry Pi ein. Damals habe ich erklärt, wie man die Linux Software dump1090 dafür verwendet. Der seit dem von mir verwendete Fork auf GitHub von MalcolmRobb wird allerdings seit Jahren nicht mehr weiterentwickelt. Nach einiger Recherche bin ich auf den Fork dump1090-mutability gestoßen, welcher sich von MalcolmRobbs ableitet. “It adds new functionality and is designed to be built as a Debian/Raspbian package.”

Tatsächlich lässt sich dieses Tool sehr einfach installieren, was ich nachfolgend gerne erläutern möchte. Die erweiterten Funktionlitäten sind z.B: die Logging-Möglichkeiten, mit denen sich Statistiken erzeugen lassen. Hierüber wird es einen extra Blogpost geben.

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Palo vs. Forti: Blog Stats

I want to talk about a fun fact concerning my blog statistics: Since a few years I have some “CLI troubleshooting commands” posts on my blog – one for the Palo Alto Networks firewall and another for the FortiGate firewall from Fortinet. If you are searching on Google for something like “palo alto cli commands” or “fortigate troubleshooting cli” my blog is always listed amongst the first 2-4 results.

But for some reasons the article for Fortinet has much more hits. I don’t know why but I have two different ideas. What do you think?

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Palo Alto Aggregate Interface w/ LACP

Since PAN-OS version 6.1 the Palo Alto Networks firewall supports LACP, the Link Aggregation Control Protocol which bundles physical links to a logical channel. Palo Alto calls it “Aggregate Interface Group” while Cisco calls it EtherChannel or Channel Group. I configured LACP for two ports connected from a Palo Alto firewall to a Cisco switch. Following are the configuration steps for both devices as well as some show commands.

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